Correlational finding on Happiness and Involvement in school-work
Subject code: S01ac03

StudyVanHoof & Raaijmakers (2002): study NL 1997
TitleThe Spatial Integration of Adolescent Identity: Its Relation to Age, Education, and subjective Well-Being.
SourceScandinavian Journal of Psychology, 2002, Vol. 43, 201 - 212
Public12-21 aged, secondary schools, The Netherlands, 1997?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =294

Correlate
Author's labelCommitment U-GIDS (Vertical integration)
Page in Source 206, 208
Our classificationInvolvement in school-work, code S01ac03
Operationalization
Self-report on 8 items such as:
- 'I know for sure I was right to choose the school I 
attend' and 
- 'The school I attend gives me self-confidence'
Rated on a 5-point numerical scale ranging from 
1=completely untrue to 5=completely true
Observed distribution1: N=79; 2: N=95; 3:N=95
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha=0,80
Remarks
U-GIDS (Utrecht Groningen Identity Development 
Scale)and gives a specific operationalization of the 
status variables themselves

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.36 p < .001
Early adolescents, age 12-16 low school level
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.31 p < .01
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.04 ns
Early adolescents, age 12-15 high school level
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.03 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.15 ns
Late adolescents, age 17-21 high school level
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.02 ns
Beta's controlled for:
- vertical integration concerning school
- exploration concerning school


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl