Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Mental health in nation

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelDepression
Page in Source 65
Our classificationMental health in nation
Operationalization
Beck Depression Inventory
Observed distributionM(weighted by sample size)= 7.98, 8.81,3.67
Error EstimatesSD(weighted by sample size)= 6.50,6.88,3.68
Remarks
Combined 1961-version, 1978-version, and Short-version 
data set
The versions differs across nations.
Correlations across versions varies between +.94 and 
+.42 
Units are nation averages

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.46 p < .05
Average happiness by average score on BDI in 24 
countries.
O-Sum---mq-*-14-ar=-.66 p < .01
Average happiness by average score on BDI in 23 
countries.


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-Sum---mq-*-14-aSelfreport on two questions:

A Taking all together, how happy would you say you are?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
B All things considered, how satisfied are you with your
life as-a-whole now?
10 satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 dissatisfied

Computation: (Ax2,5) +B -10

Name: Inglehart's combined score
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-aSelfreport on single questions:

This measure of average happiness in nations combines responses to different questions on happiness and life-satisfaction rated on different scales. Precise items and rating scales differ per nation. Average scores per nation were transformed afterwards to a common 0-10 scale.

Name: Diener's SWB-score of nations


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl