Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: In recent past

StudyBortner & Hultsch (1972): study US 1959
TitlePersonal Time Perspective in Adulthood.
SourceDevelopmental Psychology, 1972, Vol. 7, 98 - 103
Public20-88 aged, general public, USA, 1959
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1409

Correlate
Author's labelRetrotension
Page in Source 102
Our classificationIn recent past
Operationalization
Present assessment in comparaison with five years 
backward (retrotension)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.18 ns
RETROTENSION (5 years backward)

Beta controlled for:
- age
- worried & afraid
- country protension
- economic level
- self-respect
- success in  goals
- country future 
- occupation
- opportunity
- country past
- satisfied country
- self-confidence
- troubles and obstacles
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aRČ=.15


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question :

"Some people seem to be quite happy and satisfied with their lives, while others seem quite unhappy and dissatisfied. Now look at this ladder (again). Suppose that a person who is entirely satisfied with his life would be at the top of the ladder and a person who is extremely dissatisfied with his life would be at the bottom of the ladder. Where would you put yourself on the ladder at the present stage of your life in terms of how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with your personal life?"
[ 10 ] entirely satisfied
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] entirely dissatisfied

Name Cantril ladder rating (modified version)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
RČ = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
RČ = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl