Correlational finding on Happiness and Later life-appraisals
Subject code: L04aa03

StudyMussen et al. (1982): study US 1930
TitleEarly Adult Antecedents of Life Satisfaction at Age 70.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1982, Vol. 37, 316 - 322
PublicMothers of 21-months babies. Followed 40 years, Berkeley USA, 1930-70
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81

Correlate
Author's labelLater life appraisal
Page in Source 317
Our classificationLater life-appraisals, code L04aa03
Operationalization
Neugarten (1961) Life Satisfaction Rating (LSR)
Five item index of interviewer ratings
on:
- zest versus apathy
- resolution and fortitude
- congruence between desired and
  achieved goals.
- self-concepts (from "feels at his 
  best" to "feels worthless")
- mood tone (ranging from "happy,
  optimistic attitudes and mood" to 
  "pessimistic", "complaining"' and
  "bitter feelings").
The LSR is not a valid indicator of happiness.
LSR assessed at T2 (Ss. aged 70).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-br=+.30 p < .05
HAPP 3.4 assessed at T1 (Ss. aged 30).
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-br=+.39 p < .001
Happiness (affect) was assessed at T1 when Ss.were 
aged about 30.
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-brpc=+.46 p < .001
rpc controlled for socio-economic status through 
the years.
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-brpc=+.34 p < .05
rpc controlled for socio-economic status through 
the years.


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-bRating based on two independent interviews (Rate question not reported)
7 tremendous cheerful
6
5
4 average
3
2
1 extremely disenchanted

Summation: average of rates
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-bSelfreport in focused interview

Two independent interviews. Each interviewer rated `satisfaction with lot' on the same scale.
1 tremendously satisfied
2
3
4 average
5
6
7 extremely dissatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl