Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier leisure
Subject code: L03aa01

StudyGlancy et al. (1986): study US 1947
TitleAdolescent Activities and Adult Success and Happiness: Twenty Four Years Later.
SourceSociology and Social Research, 1986, Vol. 70, 242 - 250
PublicHigh school pupils, rural area Pensylvania USA, followed 1947-1971
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1521

Correlate
Author's labelLeisure pattern factors
Page in Source 250
Our classificationEarlier leisure, code L03aa01
Operationalization
List of 74 asked activities at T1 (1947) high school 
students did in their leisure:

a: play the radio, collect coins, read stories, collect 
autographs, Go to movies, collect pictures, read comic 
strips, use a camera, work problems , sew or knit, 
study history, repair things, study science, make boats 


b: study literature, make airplanes, do crossword 
putties, make a radio, study trees, work with tools, 
study birds, Have a garden, study animals, drive an 
automobile, study butterflies, play with pets, draw or 
paint, raise animals, work in laboratory.

c: go fishing, make models or designs, climb or hike, 
do housework, skate, sing, ride a bicycle, play piano, 
ride a horse, make a scrapbook, practice first aid, 
keep a diary, play cards, write poems,play dominoes, 
speak pieces

d: play checkers, play an instrument, play chess, visit 
museums, collect stamps, go to church, go to Sunday 
school, belong to a club, belong to YMCA or YWCA, go to 
parks, engage in sports, go to a circus, sing in a 
chorus, sing in a glee club

e: belong to a gang, play ping pong, play croquet, play 
baseball, play tennis, go hunting, go riding with 
others, play in a band, play in an orchestra, go to 
church socials, go to parties, go to dances, be an 
officer of a club, be a class officer, go camping, play 
in an orchestra, go to church socials, go to parties.

Factors extracted:
 
A: Socializing
Activities which loaded heavily on this factor were 
peer group activities, probably engaged in outside of 
the family or adult-organised youth group settings. 

B: Social performance-achievement. 
This factor focused on activities which emphasised 
achieving performance goals, working with others, and 
participating in leadership roles. These activities 
generally required groups of young people and needed 
adult instruction or direction. Playing a musical 
instrument, being in a band, orchestra, or chorus, and 
being a club officer were important components. 

C: Order and independence
Activities concerned with study of the natural 
environment and youths' interest in the order of the 
world around them were key to this factor. Study of 
birds, trees, animals, and butterflies, and engaging in 
labwork were included.

D: General knowledge
Information-seeking activities which were concerned 
with learning about the world were dominant in this 
factor. Major elements related to solitary activities 
of study and reading (study literature, history, 
science, read stories) that may have given youth access 
to a broad range of information. 

E: Opposite-gender orientation
Items which presented the highest factor loadings here 
were activities which appeared to fit gender 
stereotypes for the opposite sex. Thus, for the males, 
the following items received the highest loadings: sew 
or knit, write poems, play chess, speak pieces, keep a 
diary, collect autographs, and play dominces. For the 
females, the items with the heaviest loadings were: 
make a radio, make boats, make airpianes, and work with 
tools. The level of participation in the most heavily 
loaded items of opposite gender orientation was not 
common for either
males or females. 

F: Home-based and outdoor recreation
This factor emphasised activities that were likely to 
occur in the home or outdoor envi
ronment and required little organisation or leadership. 
Items dealing with raising animals, playing with pets, 
working with tools, going fishing and going hunting, 
climbing or hiking, and repairing things loaded highly. 


G: Play
A seventh factor, unique to the girls, focused on games 
and play activities including playing checkers, 
dominoes, cardi,
chess, and working crossword puitlet.
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha: A:. Males .86; females .76 B: Males .78; females .62 C: Males .78; females .62 B: Males .78; females .62 B: Males .78; females .62 B: Males .78; females .62 B: Males .78; females .62 B: Males .78; females .62

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.06 ns
T1 (1947) leisure activity by T2 (1971) happiness
                     males           females
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=
Socializing       r = +.06 (ns)    r = +.13 (01)
               Beta = +.09 (ns) Beta = +.13 (01)

Social            r = +.00 (ns)    r = +.06 (ns)
Performeance   Beta = -.00 (ns) Beta = +.00 (ns)
achievement    

Order and         r = -.03 (ns)    r = +.04 (ns)
independence   Beta = -.03 (ns) Beta = +.04 (ns)

General knowledge r = -.03 (ns)    r = +.00 (ns)
               Beta = -.04 (ns) Beta = -.01 (ns)

Opposite-gender   r = -.01 (ns)    r = -.05 (ns)
orientation    Beta = +.00 (ns) Beta = -.00 (ns)

Home based and    r = +.02 (ns)    r = +.02 (ns)
outdoor        Beta = +.01 (ns) Beta = -.07 (ns)

Play              r = x            r = +.07 (ns)
               Beta = x        Beta  = +.05 (ns)

Beta's controlled for T1:
- fathers occupational prestige
- father’s and mother’s years of formal schooling
- number of siblings
- highschool grade point average


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl