Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Contacts with relatives

StudyPalisi & Canning (1986): study US 1974
TitleUrbanism and Psychological Well-Being: A Test of Three Theories.
SourceSociological Spectrum, 1986, Vol. 6, 361 - 378
DOIDOI: 10.1080/02732173.1986.9981797
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1974-1982
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7542

Correlate
Author's labelSocial relationshipswith kin
Page in Source 369
Our classificationContacts with relatives
Operationalization
Single closed question on spending a social evening 
with relatives, rated on a 7-point scale, ranging from 
"almost every day" to "never" (order reversed).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.04 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aarpc=+.06 p < .01
rpc controlled for income, occupation, educational 
degree, children, age, marital status, race, sex 
and urbanism


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl