Correlational finding on Happiness and Actually got children later (follow-up)
Subject code: C03aa03b

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Author's labelLater parental status
Our classificationActually got children later (follow-up), code C03aa03b
Parental status at T5, assesed in two ways:
- being married with children
  0 = single or married with no   children; 
  1 = married with one or more children - being married 
with no children
  0 = single or married with children;
  1 = married with no children
Divorced and separated with or without children 
excluded from analysis

Observed Relation with Happiness
               Married with      Married with
Happiness      children          no children
T1         tau = -.03 (ns)         +.07 (ns)
T2         tau = -.01 (ns)         +.07 (ns)
T3         tau = +.02 (ns)         +.09 (05)
T4         tau = +.02 (ns)         +.11 (01)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5

Appendix 2: Statistics used
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

tau = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.