Correlational finding on Happiness and Rural vs urban dwelling
Subject code: L13ab02b

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelUrbanicity of later dwelling
Our classificationRural vs urban dwelling, code L13ab02b
Operationalization
Urbanicity of dwelling at T5
1 = rural community or small town or     city of fewer 
than 50,000;
2 = medium sized city (50,000-100,000)     or suburb of 
medium sized city;
3 = fairly large city (100,000-500,000)
    or suburb of fairly large city;
4 = very large city (over 500,000) or     suburb of a 
very large city

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=- ns
T1 happiness:        tau = -.03  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.02  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.02  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.02  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl