Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents education
Subject code: F01ag01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelParent's education
Our classificationParents education, code F01ag01
Operationalization
Simple direct question at T1: How many grades of school 
did your father/mother complete? 
1 = less than HS;
2 = some HS (9 - 11 years); 
3 = some HS plus noncollege training;
4 = completed HS (12 years);
5 = completed HS plus noncollege       training;
6 = some college; 
7 = completed college; 
8 = post-graduate degree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ ns
- Father's education
T1 happiness:        tau = +.05  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = +.03  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = +.01  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = +.04  (ns)
- Mother's education
T1 happiness:        tau = +.02  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.00  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.02  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.00  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl