Study | Tissue & Wells (1971): study US 1971 |

Title | Antecedent Life Styles and Old Age. |

Source | Psychological Reports, 1971, Vol. 29, 1100 |

Public | Applicants for old age assistance, USA, 1971. |

Sample | Non-probability purposive sample |

Non-Response | |

Respondents N = | 256 |

Correlate | |

Author's label | Number of current friends |

Page in Source | 29 |

Our classification | Current number of friends |

Operationalization | Self report. Question not reported. |

Remarks | Current contacts correlated with retrospective contacts in middle adulthood (age 30-60. ChiČ=9.82 p<.01) |

Observed Relation with Happiness | ||

Happiness Measure | Statistics | Elaboration/Remarks |

A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a | t.=1.72 p < .05 | Only among elderly who reported to have had much social contacts in middle adulthood ('actives'). Not among earlier 'loners' and 'intermediates'. |

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

Code | Full Text |

A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a | Selfreport on 10 questions: During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no) A Particularly excited or interested in something? B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair? C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done? D Very lonely or remote from other people? E Pleased about having accomplished something? F Bored? G On top of the world? H Depressed or very unhappy? I That things were going your way? J Upset because someone criticized you? Answer options and scoring: yes = 1 no = 0 Summation: -Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I -Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J -Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range: -5 to +5 Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version) |

Appendix 2: Statistics used

Symbol | Explanation |

t. | t-STATISTIC (Student's t-statistic) Type: symmetric standard test statistic. One parameter: n (= number of degrees of freedom (df) ; range df: [1; + infinite) Range for t: unlimited Meaning : the test statistic is the ratio of a difference between a statistic and its expected value under the null hypothesis and its (estimated) standard error with n degrees of freedom. The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics. |

Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.

https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl