Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Membership of voluntary organizations

StudyTissue & Wells (1971): study US 1971
TitleAntecedent Life Styles and Old Age.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1971, Vol. 29, 1100
PublicApplicants for old age assistance, USA, 1971.
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =256

Correlate
Author's labelMembership in a special group or clique of friends
Page in Source 29
Our classificationMembership of voluntary organizations
Operationalization
Self report. Questions not reported.
Remarks
Current contacts correlated with retrospective contacts 
in middle adulthood (age 30-60).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-at.=1.71 p < .05
Only among elderly who reported to have had much 
social contacts in middle adulthood ('actives'). 
Not among earlier 'loners' and 'intermediates'.


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly excited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
t.t-STATISTIC (Student's t-statistic)
Type: symmetric standard test statistic.
One parameter: n (= number of degrees of freedom (df) ; range df: [1; + infinite)
Range for t: unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is the ratio of a difference between a statistic and its expected value under the null hypothesis and its (estimated) standard error with n degrees of freedom.
The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl