Correlational finding on Happiness and Involvement in school-work
Subject code: S01ac03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of hours of homework
Our classificationInvolvement in school-work, code S01ac03
Operationalization
Simple direct question at T1, T2 and T3: "About how 
many hours do you spend in an average week on all your 
homework including both in and out of school?"
1 =       no hours; 2 =  1 to  4 hours;
3 =  5 to  9 hours; 4 = 10 to 14 hours;
5 = 15 to 19 hours; 6 = 20 to 24 hours;
7 = 25 or more hours

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+
            Number of hours of homework
Happiness   T1            T2            T3
T1      +.07 (ns)     +.05 (ns)     +.07 (ns)
T2      +.03 (ns)     +.06 (ns)     +.06 (ns)
T3      +.02 (ns)     +.01 (ns)     +.10 (01)
T4      +.02 (ns)     -.00 (ns)     +.04 (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl