Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier self-image
Subject code: S02aa01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Author's labelSelf-esteem
Our classificationEarlier self-image, code S02aa01
10-item index at T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 of closed 
questions on being worthwile as a person, having good 
qualities, being as able as others, not being proud of 
oneself, having a positive attitude towards oneself, 
feeling no good at all, being a useful guy, feeling one 
can't do anything right, doing a job well, having a not 
very useful life (items from Rosenberg, 1965, and Cobb, 

Observed Relation with Happiness
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ p < .001
Happiness       T1     T2     T3     T4     T5
T1            +.57   +.38   +.34   +.33   +.22 T2  
          +.37   +.58   +.44   +.40   +.28
T3            +.31   +.43   +.61   +.46   +.30
T4            +.29   +.38   +.44   +.60   +.33
All tau's significant (001)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5

Appendix 2: Statistics used
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

tau = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.