Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Household income

StudyAjrouch (2007): study US Detroit 2001
TitleResources and Well-being among Arab-American elders
SourceJournal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, (2007), 22: 167-182
DOIdoi: 10/1007/10823-006-9033-z
Public56+aged, Arab-Americans, USA, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 173, 175, 177
Our classificationHousehold income
Operationalization
1: <$20,000 a year 
2: $20-$39,999 a year
3: $40-$59,999 a year
4: $60,000 or above a year
Remarks
Income is operationalized as the total pre-tax 
household income from all sources (jobs, interest, 
rents and so forth) for him/her and all family members 
with whom he/she lived for the previous year:

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-grs=+.26 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.09 ns
Beta controlled for 
- age 
- gender
- migrant
- education


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
7 completely satisfied
6 quite satisfied
5 somewhat satisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
2 quite dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 no rank correlation
rs = 1 perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl