Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of barbiturates
Subject code: S13ab03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Author's labelMarijuana use
Our classificationUse of barbiturates, code S13ab03
Simple direct question at T3, T4 and T5 asking 
respondent how often he used marijuana (for other than 
medical purposes) during part or all of the last year. 
1 = never; 2 = once or twice a year; 3 = 3 - 10 times a 
year; 4 = once or twice a month; 5 = once or twice a 
week; 6 = nearly every day

Observed Relation with Happiness
                   Marijuana use
Happiness       T3        T4        T5
T1         tau = -.06      -.05      -.05
T2         tau = -.06      -.08 (05) -.05
T3         tau = -.01      -.06      -.02
T4         tau = -.02      -.04      -.06
All tau's not significant, unless indicated 
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5

Appendix 2: Statistics used
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

tau = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.