Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of barbiturates
Subject code: S13ab03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Author's labelDrug use
Our classificationUse of barbiturates, code S13ab03
A mean of three items asking how often during the past 
year respondent had used amphetamines, barbiturates, 
and LSD for other than medical purposes. 
1 = never; 2 = once or twice a year; 
3 = 3 to 10 times a year; 4 = once or twice a month; 5 
= once or twice a week; 6 = nearly every day. Assessed 
at T3, T4 and T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
                Drug use
Happiness       T3        T4        T5
T1     tau  = -.06      -.06      -.11 (01)
T2     tau = -.00      -.06      -.03
T3     tau = -.02      -.03      -.03
T4     tau = -.01      -.04      -.06
All tau's not significant, unless indicated 
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5

Appendix 2: Statistics used
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

tau = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.