Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: A-CA by A-CA

StudyRobinson et al. (2001): study US 1986
TitleDispositional Cheerfullness. Early Genetic and Environmental Influences.
SourceEmde, R.N.; Hewitt, J.K.: Eds.: ''Infancy to Early Childhood'', Oxford University Press, 2001, New York, USA, 163 - 177
PublicToddlers, same-sex twins, Colorado, United States, followed from 14 to 24 months of age, 1986-1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelStability of positive hedonic tone across situations
Page in Source 167-170
Our classificationA-CA by A-CA
Operationalization
Rating from behavior recorded on video tape:

A: During BAYLEY TEST:
- completed 30 min after experimenter arrived at the 
home
- test consists of a give-and-take between the child 
seated in a chair and a female experimenter
- child is presented a toy
- an action is modeled
- child responses
- toy is removed
- a new toy is presented
- Experimenter maintains a posivitve, animating tone.

B: During FREE PLAY SITUATION
- 2 hours after experimenters have arrived at the home
- standard set of 10 toys is arranged on floor
- mother sits in chair, allowed to respond but not to 
initiate
- both twins play freely while being filmed

Rating scale:
1 no positive emotion observed
2 positive interest
3 smiling
4 strong laughter
Observed distribution- at age 14 month: Bayley: M=2.41 sd=.33 N=393 Free play: M=2.23 sd=.27 N=394 - at age 20 month: Bayley: M=2.44 sd=.31 N=367 Free play: M=2.30 sd=.28 N=369 at age 24 month: Bayley: M=2.50 sd=.34 N=354 Free play: M=2.25 sd=.22 N=354
Remarks
in both test situations the positive Hedonic Tone Scale 
was used (Easterbrooks & Emde, 1083);
Bayley: 40-45 min period, rating in 1-min intervals, 
sampled in 5-min blocks (i.e. 5 min on, 5 min off)
Free play: 15 min period, rated continuously, 30 sec 
intervals

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-ar=+.34 p < .01
at age 14 months (N=368)
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-ar=+.37 p < .01
at age 20 months (N=343)
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-ar=+.25 p < .01
at age 24 months (N=356)


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-aTime sampling of happy behaviors during free play and Bayley testing. Analysis of 1 minute intervals during Bayley tests and 30 second intervals during free play

Rated:
1 no positive emotion observed
2 positive interest
3 smiling
4 strong laughter

Computation: average over all observations

Interviewer rating of happiness, using flexible standards relative to the age of the subject.

Full instructions not reported.


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl