Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: A-CA by A-CA

StudyRothbart (1981): study US Oregon 1976
TitleMeasurement of Temperament in Infancy
SourceChild development, 1981, 52, 560-578
DOIDOI:009-3920/81/5202-0005$01.001
Public3-12 months aged infants, Oregon, United States, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response41%
Respondents N =215

Correlate
Author's labelStability
Page in Source 574, 575
Our classificationA-CA by A-CA
Operationalization
Intercorrelation of 15 ratings of happy appearance 
(smiling and laughter) at different months of age
Remarks
Cohort 1: completed IBQ at 3, 6, 9 & 12 months
Cohort 2: completed IBQ at 6, 9 & 12 months
Cohort 3: completed IBQ at 9 & 12 months
all Stability Correlations two-tailed tested

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-amr=+.70 p < .001
COHORT 1
3-6 months:  r=+.60
3-9 months:  r=+.63
3-12 months: r=+.57
6-9 months:  r=+.81
6-12 months: r=+.78
9-12 months: r=+.80
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-amr=+.72 p < .001
COHORT 2
6-9 months:  r=+.73
6-12 months: r=+.66
9-12 months: r=+.78
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-ar=+.58 p < .001
COHORT 3


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-aRating by parents of smiling and laughter in 15 different situations, such as

During the last week, when being undressed, how often did your child smile or laugh?
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 about half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Full list of situations not reported

Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire IBQ


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
mrMean correlation coefficient (r).
For r, see PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl