Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Current nutrition

StudyLauzon-Guillain et al. (2012): study GB East England 2006
TitleBreastfeeding and Infant Temperament at Age Three Months
SourcePloS ONE, www.plosone.org, January 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, e29326
DOIDOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0029326
Public3 months aged infants, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2006-2009
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =316

Correlate
Author's labelMode of Infant Feeding
Page in Source 2, 3,4
Our classificationCurrent nutrition
Operationalization
Mother's report on single question to a research nurse 
administered questionnaire:
a: Formula-fed
b: Mixed-fed
c: Breastfed
Observed distributiona: N=88, 55% males; b: N=91, 54% males; c: N=137, 54% males
Remarks
Assessed at 3 months of age

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-aDM=- p < .05
a Formula-fed: M = 4,8 [CI95 4,6-5,0]
b Mixed-fed:   M = 4,4 [CI95 4,2-4,6] 
c Breastfed:   M = 4,4 [CI95 4,2-4,5]

b, c < a
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-abDM=- p < .05
a Formula-fed: M = 5,4 [CI95 5,2-5,6]
b Mixed-fed:   M = 5,0 [CI95 4,8-5,2] 
c Breastfed:   M = 5,1 [CI95 4,8-5,1]

b, c < a
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-baDM=- p < .05
a Formula-fed: M = 5,3 [CI95 5,1-5,5]
b Mixed-fed:   M = 5,1 [CI95 5,0-5,3] 
c Breastfed:   M = 5,0 [CI95 4,8-5,1]

c < a
A-AB-cw-rdf-v-7-a
a Formula-fed: 7.1
b Mixed-fed:   5.7
c Breastfed:   5.4

Affect Balance computed by WDH team


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-AB-cw-rdf-v-7-aRating by mother of infants affective reactions

During the last week how often did your child show
a: pleasure in high intensity situations such as peek-a boo game
b: pleasure in low intensity situations, such as playing quietly with a favorite toy
c: smile in sitiations such as being undressed
d: distress to limitations
e: fear
f: sadness
Each rated:
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Computation: (a+b+c) - (d+e+f)

Items part of the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire IBQ
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-aRating by parents of smiling and laughter in 15 different situations, such as

During the last week, when being undressed, how often did your child smile or laugh?
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 about half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Full list of situations not reported

Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire IBQ
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-abRating by parents of pleasure in different high stimulus intensity situations, such as:

During a peek-a-boo game, how often did the baby smile?
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 about half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Full list of situations not reported.

Part of Rothbart Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-baRating by parents of pleasure in different low stimulus intensity situations, such as:

When playing quietly with one of his/her favorite toys, how often did the baby show pleasure?
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 about half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Full list of situations not reported.

Part of Rothbart Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl