Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Earlier level of income

StudyMartin & Lichter (1983): study US Michigan 1973
TitleGeographic Mobility and Satisfaction with Life and Work.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1983, Vol. 64, 524 - 534
Public16+ aged, employees, Michigan/US, followed 4 years, 1973-1977
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response(43%)
Respondents N =827

Correlate
Author's labelPast income
Page in Source 529, 531
Our classificationEarlier level of income
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Adding up your income from all sources, roughly what is 
the total yearly incane before taxes of your immediate 
family--including
your income, the wages of everyone else in the family 
who works and income from any other source?
Remarks
Assessed at T1(1973) and T2(1977)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-7-dBeta=+.09 p < .01
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1 income (T2 
happiness by T1 income, controlling for T1 
happiness).

Beta addtionally controlled for:
- T1-T2 residential moving
- T1 age
- T1 education
- T1-T2 change in intrinsic job rewards
- T1-T2 change in extrinsic job rewards


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-Sum-c-mq-v-7-dSelf-report on two questions:

A) Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are:
1: not too happy
2: pretty happy
3: very happy

B) In general, how satisfying do you find the ways you're spending your life these days? Would you call it:
1: not very satisfying
2: pretty satisfying
3: very satisfying

Computation: A+B


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl