Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: House owned or rented

StudyRohe & Stegman (1994): study 1992
TitleThe Effects of Homeownership: on the Self-Esteem, Perceived Control and Life Satisfaction of Low-Income People.
SourceJournal of the American Planning Association,1994, Vol. 60, 173 - 184
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944369408975571#.U-ipnIccTDA
DOIDOI:10.1080/01944369408975571
PublicHome buyers and controls, Baltimore, USA, followed 18 months 1992-93
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =283

Correlate
Author's labelHome ownership
Page in Source 176,179,181
Our classificationHouse owned or rented
Operationalization
1 New home owners (experimental group)
0 Continuous renters (control group)
Remarks
Selection of respondents in a home ownership program 
with an experimental group of low income home buyers 
and a control group of renters. Home buyers at T1 are 
the home owners at T2.
T1-T2 interval: 18 months

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-faDM=+ p < .001
                 T1 before   T2 after   CHANGE
                 purchase of home
New home owners: M = 4.02    M = 4,34   +0,32
Renters:         M = 3,98    M = 3,90   -O,08
- difference        +0,04       +0,44
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-faBeta=+.25 p < .05
T1-T2 CHANGE happiness after purchase of home: T2 
happiness by T2 home ownership,controlling for:
- T1 happiness(to indicate CHANGE in happiness)
- Social background:
  - Age
  - Sexe 
  - Marital status 
  - Education
  - Income
  - Occupational status
 Housing situation:
  - Condition of the house
  - Housing type 
  - Satisfaction with neighborhood


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-faSelfreport on single question:

Please tell me how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with various aspects of your life at the present time... Are you with your life as a whole...?"
5 very satisfied
4 somewhat satisfied
3 about evenly satisfied and dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied

Question preceded by items on satisfaction with aspects of life.


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl