Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Corruption in nation

StudyWalsh (2012): study ZZ EU 27 2004 /1
TitleThe Influence of Macro-Economic Conditions and Institutional Quality on National Levels of Life Satisfaction.
SourceWorking Paper 12/08, UCD Centre for Economic Research, 2012, Dublin, Ireland
URLhttp://researchrepository.ucd.ie/bitstream/handle/10197/3720/WP12_08.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 23 European nations, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196000

Correlate
Author's labelInstitutional quality, absence of corruption, Clean
Page in Source 14, Table 2
Our classificationCorruption in nation
Operationalization
Index based on perception of business people and 
experts of corruption involving public officials, civil 
servants and politicians.
Clean: 0-10:
 0 = highly corrupt
10 = very clean
Observed distributionMean: 6,24 SD: 1.91
Remarks
Transparancy International; Corruption Perception 
Index.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.09 p < .001
AVERAGE happiness by institutional quality 
(perceived absence of corruption) in 23 nations.

b (+0,0942) controlled for:
-Unemployment rate
-Inflation
-GDP per capita
(with Turkey, 232 observations in 2004-2011)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.08 p < .001
b (+0,0806) additionally controlled for:
-Income-inequality (Gini)
(without Turkey, 196 observations in 2004-2010)


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole how satisfied are you with the life you lead?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
- Don't know


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl