Study | Keng & Wu (2014): study TW 1989 |

Title | Living Happily Ever After? The Effect of Taiwan's National Health Insurance on the Happiness of the Elderly. |

Source | Journal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 583 - 808 |

DOI | DOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9449-4 |

Public | Elderly, Taiwan, folowed 14 years 1989-2003, before and after change health insurance law in 1995 |

Sample | Probability systematic sample |

Non-Response | <10% |

Respondents N = | 4049 |

Correlate | |

Author's label | National Health Insurance in 1995 |

Page in Source | 787-788,793-798 |

Our classification | Insurances |

Operationalization | 1 : Insured NHI bofore 1995 0 : Not insured NHI before 1995 |

Remarks | Assessed at:: T0: 1989, T1: 1993, T2: 1995, T3: 1999 |

Observed Relation with Happiness | ||

Happiness Measure | Statistics | Elaboration/Remarks |

M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-a | DM=+ p < .01 | LEVEL of happiness before change of law in 1995 Insured: M=1.54 Not insured: M=1.20 - difference= +.34 |

M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-b | DM=+ p < .01 | Insured: M=1.23 Not insured: M=0.94 - difference= +.29 |

M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-a | b=+.14 p < .10 | CHANGE average happiness after change of law among initially uninsured |

M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-b | b= ns | B's controlled for - change happiness of originally insured - socio-demographic background - age - education - marital status - health - illness - health behavior - ethnicity Most gain in happiness among the initially least healthy uninsured Similar across - gender - education - income |

M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-a | OPRC=-.02 ns | LEVEL of happiness before change of law in 1995 |

M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-b | OPRC=-.05 ns | |

M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-a | OPRC=+.26 p < .05 | LEVEL of happiness after change of law in 1995 |

M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-b | OPRC=+.30 p < .05 | OPRC controlled for: - Age - Social background - sexe - education - income - marital status - origin - native - mainland - possessions - house - stock - health history, ever had.. - asthma - stroke - heart - disbetes - life style - drinks - smokes |

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

Code | Full Text |

M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-a | Selfreport on single questions: "Please tell me how often you have felt this way during the past week...?" I was happy 0 rarely or none of the time 1 some or a little of the time 2 occasionally or a moderate amount of time 3 most of the time Item in CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression) Scale |

M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-b | Selfreport on single question: Please tell me how often you have felt this way during the past week...? I enjoyed life... 0 rarely or none of the time 1 some or a little of the time 2 occasionally or a moderate amount of time 3 most of the time Item in CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression) Scale. Score reversed. |

Appendix 2: Statistics used

Symbol | Explanation |

b | REGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS) Type: test statistic Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric Theoretical range: unlimited Meaning: b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average. B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average. B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate. |

DM | DIFFERENCE of MEANS Type: descriptive statistic only. Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero. Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels. |

OPRC | OPRC: Regression coefficient in ordered categorical probit regression. Only the sign of the computed coefficient is informative. Happiness is an ordered categorical variable. Higher categories correspond to being more happy. OPRC < 0 indicates that the probability of being beyond a chosen happiness category decreases and the probability of being at or below that category increases when 1) the corresponding metric correlate increases 2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category. OLRC > 0 indicates that the probability of being beyond a chosen happiness category increases and the probablity of being at or below that category decreases when 1) the corresponding metric correlate increases 2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category. |

Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.

https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl