Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Social security in nation

StudyKeng & Wu (2014): study TW 1989
TitleLiving Happily Ever After? The Effect of Taiwan's National Health Insurance on the Happiness of the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 583 - 808
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9449-4
PublicElderly, Taiwan, folowed 14 years 1989-2003, before and after change health insurance law in 1995
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response<10%
Respondents N =4049

Correlate
Author's labelNational Health Insurance in 1995
Page in Source 787-788,793-798
Our classificationSocial security in nation
Operationalization
1 : Insured NHI bofore 1995
0 : Not insured NHI before 1995
Remarks
Assessed at:: T0: 1989, T1: 1993, T2: 1995, T3: 1999

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aDM=+ p < .01
LEVEL of happiness before change of law in 1995
Insured:     M=1.54
Not insured: M=1.20
-  difference= +.34
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bDM=+ p < .01
Insured:     M=1.23
Not insured: M=0.94
-  difference= +.29
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-ab=+.14 p < .10
CHANGE average happiness after change of law among 
initially uninsured
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bb= ns
B's controlled for
- change happiness of originally insured
- socio-demographic background
  - age
  - education
  - marital status
- health
  - illness
  - health behavior
- ethnicity 

Most gain in happiness among the initially least 
healthy uninsured

Similar across
- gender
- education
- income
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aOPRC=-.02 ns
LEVEL of happiness before change of law in 1995
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bOPRC=-.05 ns
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aOPRC=+.26 p < .05
LEVEL of happiness after change of law in 1995
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.30 p < .05
OPRC controlled for:
- Age
- Social background
  - sexe
  - education
  - income
  - marital status
  - origin
    - native
    - mainland
- possessions
  - house
  - stock
- health history, ever had..
  - asthma
  - stroke
  - heart
  - disbetes
- life style
  - drinks
  - smokes


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single questions:

"Please tell me how often you have felt this way during the past week...?"
I was happy
0 rarely or none of the time
1 some or a little of the time
2 occasionally or a moderate amount of time
3 most of the time

Item in CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression) Scale
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

Please tell me how often you have felt this way during the past week...?
I enjoyed life...
0 rarely or none of the time
1 some or a little of the time
2 occasionally or a moderate amount of time
3 most of the time

Item in CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression) Scale. Score reversed.


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
OPRCOPRC: Regression coefficient in ordered categorical probit regression.
Only the sign of the computed coefficient is informative.

Happiness is an ordered categorical variable. Higher categories correspond to being more happy.

OPRC < 0 indicates that the probability of being beyond a chosen happiness category decreases and the probability of being at or below that category increases when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

OLRC > 0 indicates that the probability of being beyond a chosen happiness category
increases and the probablity of being at or below that category decreases when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl