Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Value climate in the nation

StudySortheix & Lönnqvist (2014): study ZZ EU 25 2006
TitlePersonal Value Priorities and Life Satisfaction in Europe: The |Moderating Role of Socioeconomic Development.
SourceJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2014, Vol. 45, 282 - 299
Public15+ aged, general public, 25 European nations, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Respondents N =44106

Author's labelRandom slope variance
Page in Source 288-292
Our classificationValue climate in the nation
Selfreport of similarity with verbal portraits of 
different people who expressed a value orientation.
A. Security
5. It is important to him/her to live in secure 
surroundings. He/she avoids anything that might 
endanger his/her safety.
14. It is important to him/her that the government 
insure his/her safety against all threats. He/she wants 
the state to be strong so it can defend its citizens.
B. Conformity
7. He/she believes that people should do what they're 
told. He/she thinks people should follow rules at all 
times, even when no-one is watching.
16. It is important to him/her always to behave 
properly. He/she wants to avoid doing anything people 
would say is wrong.
C. Tradition
9. It is important to him/her to be humble and modest. 
He/she tries not to draw attention to herself.
20. Tradition is important to him/her. He/she tries to 
follow the customs handed down by his/her religion or 
his/her family.
D. Benevolence
12. It's very important to him/her to help the people 
around him/her. He/she wants to care for their 
18. It is important to him/her to be loyal to his/her 
friends. He/she wants to devote herself to people close 
to him/her.
E. Universalism
3. He/she thinks it is important that every person in 
the world be treated equally. He/she believes everyone 
should have equal opportunities in life.
8. It is important to him/her to listen to people who 
are different from him/her.
Even when he/she disagrees with them, he/she still 
wants to understand them.
19. He/she strongly believes that people should care 
for nature. Looking after the environment is important 
to him/her.
F. Self-direction
1. Thinking up new ideas and being creative is 
important to him/her. He/she likes to do things in her 
own original way.
11. It is important to him/her to make his/her own 
decisions about what he/she does. He/she likes to be 
free and not depend on others.
G. Stimulation
6. He/she likes surprises and is always looking for new 
things to do. He/she thinks it is important to do lots 
of different things in life.
15. He/she looks for adventures and likes to take 
risks. He/she wants to have an exciting life.
H. Hedonism
10. Having a good time is important to him/her. He/she 
likes to “spoil” him/herself.
21. He/she seeks every chance he/she can to have fun. 
It is important to him/her to do things that give 
him/her pleasure.
I. Achievement
4. It's very important to him/her to show his/her 
abilities. He/she wants people to admire what he/she 
13. Being very successful is important to him/her. 
He/she hopes people will recognize his/her 
J. Power
2. It is important to him/her to be rich. He/she wants 
to have a lot of money and expensive things.
17. It is important to him/her to be in charge and tell 
others what to do. He/She wants people to do what 
he/she says.

How much are you like this person:
6 very much like me
1  not like me at all
Error Estimatesinter item correlation: +.72
Schwartz (2003) Portrait Values Questionnaire, 21 item 
adapted version (PNQ21)

Observed Relation with Happiness
O-Sum---mq-n-11-ab-fix=+.08 p < .05
Individual value: security.
O-Sum---mq-n-11-ab-fix=+.07 p < .05
Individual value: conformity.
O-Sum---mq-n-11-ab-fix=+.06 p < .05
Individual value: tradition.
O-Sum---mq-n-11-ab-fix=+.10 p < .05
Individual value: benevolence.
O-Sum---mq-n-11-ab-fix=+.10 p < .05
Individual value: universalism.
O-Sum---mq-n-11-ab-fix=+.10 p < .05
Individual value: self-direction.
O-Sum---mq-n-11-ab-fix=+.08 p < .05
Individual value: hedonism.
O-Sum---mq-n-11-ab-fix=+.03 ns
Individual value: stimulation.
O-Sum---mq-n-11-ab-fix=+.10 p < .05
Individual value: achievement.
O-Sum---mq-n-11-ab-fix=+.05 p < .05
Individual value: power.

B-fix'scontroled for:
- individual level characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - education
  - satisfaction with income
- nation level characteristics
  - socio-economic development (HDI)
  - value climate
    - value of autonomy (vs embeddedness)
    - value of equality (vs hierarchy)
- cross level interaction
Splitt-up by the human development index of the 
- universal pattern (same direction of values)
- cultural difference (opposite direction of 
Set Image size:   

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-Sum---mq-n-11-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A: How satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
B How satisfied are you with how life has turned out so far?
C: How happy are you?

Each rated
0 extremely dissatisfied (unhappy)
10 extremenly satisfied (happy)

Computation: (A+B+C)/3

Appendix 2: Statistics used
b-fixREGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis
Type: test statistic
WDH symbol: b-fix
Primary correlate level: metric
Secondary correlate level: nonmetric
Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient.

Non-technical text:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.