Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Corruption in nation

StudyHelliwell et al. (2016): study ZZ 2012
TitleThe Distribution of World Happiness.
SourceWorld Happiness Report, 2016, Vol.1, 8 - 48
URLhttp://worldhappiness.report/#happiness2016
Public15+ aged, general public, 156 nations, 2005-2015
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1560000

Correlate
Author's labelPerceptions of corruption
Page in Source 16
Our classificationCorruption in nation
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
a. Is corruption widespread throughout the government 
or not?
b. Is corruption widespread within businesses or not?
1:  yes 
0:  no
Remarks
Where data for the government are missing, the 
perception of business corruption is used as the 
overall corruption-perception measure.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.58 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness (cognitive component) by 
corruption in 156 nations.
b controlled for
- log GDP per capita
- social support
- healthy life expectancy at birth
- freedom to make life choices
- generosity
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.66 p < .05
b additionallly controled for AVERAGE happiness 
(affective component)


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cSelfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl