Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Attitude to local natural environment

StudySmyth et al. (2008): study CN 2003
TitleThe Environment and Well-being in Urban China.
SourceEcological Economics, 2008, Vol.68, 547 - 555
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.eclecon.2008.05.017
Public18+ aged, general public, urban areas, China, 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =8890

Correlate
Author's labelNeighbourhood environment
Page in Source 550.552
Our classificationAttitude to local natural environment
Operationalization
Response to the question: Over the last two years, what 
changes in environmental consciousness have you 
observed in the neighbourhood in which you live? 
Responses depicted on an ordinal scale from 1= 
'considerable fall' to 5='significant improvement'.
Observed distribution1=1.3%; 2=7.7%; 3=24.2%; 4=56.5%; 5=10.3%. Mean perceived change rating=3.66 (SD=0.81).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eOPRC=+.20 p < .001
OPRC(0.202) controled for:
- Environmental surroundings
  - pollution
  - disaster
  - congestion
  - parks
- Personal characteristics
  - gender
  - age
  - marital status
  - education
  - occupation
  - unemployed
  - income
- Attitudes on other socio-economic and political 
issues
  - pro-market
  - income inequality
  - social protection
  - national reunification
  - SARS


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
OPRCOPRC: Regression coefficient in ordered categorical probit regression.
Only the sign of the computed coefficient is informative.

Happiness is an ordered categorical variable. Higher categories correspond to being more happy.

OPRC < 0 indicates that the probability of being beyond a chosen happiness category decreases and the probability of being at or below that category increases when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

OLRC > 0 indicates that the probability of being beyond a chosen happiness category
increases and the probablity of being at or below that category decreases when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl