Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Change in income level

StudyLuttmer (2005): study US 1987
TitleNeighbors as Negatives: Relative Earnings and Well-Being.
SourceQuarterly Journal of Economics, 2005, 963-1002
URLhttp://www.nber.org/~luttmer/relative.pdf
Public19+ aged couples, United States, followed 6 years, 1987-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8944

Correlate
Author's labelln household income
Page in Source Table 1+7+8
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Household pretax income from both main respondent and 
his/her spouse

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.12 p < .05
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
Beta controlled for:
- Income relative to neighborhood
- Value of home
- Renter
- Usual working hours
- Employment status
- Gender
- Age
- Race
- Years of education
- Household size
- Religion
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.14
Males only
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.11
Females only
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.09 p < .05
Age <30
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.11 p < .05
Age 30-40
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.17 p < .05
Age 40-60
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.10 p < .05
Age <60
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.02 ns
Education level: no education
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.12 p < .05
Marital status: never married
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.13 p < .05
Education level: high school dropout
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.18 p < .05
Education level: high school degree
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.09 p < .10
Education level: college degree or more
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.12 p < .05
Marital status: married/cohabiting
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.13 p < .05
Marital status: divorced/seperated
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.07 ns
Marital status: widowed
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.13 ns
Marital status: marital status changed last year
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.19 p < .05
Home ownership: rents
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.19 p < .05
Home ownership: owns
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.13 p < .05
Presence of children <18: None
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.11 p < .05
Presence of children <18: >1 child
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.10 p < .05
Lives in current home: <7 years
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.14 p < .05
Lives in current home: >7 years
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.12 p < .05
Lives in current home: duration is missing
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.13 p < .05
Socialize with neighbor: Less than once a month or 
missing
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.11 p < .05
Socialize with neighbor: Once a month or more
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.14 p < .05
Socialize with relatives: Less than once a month 
or missing
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.11 p < .05
Socialize with relatives: Once a month or more
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.15 p < .05
Socialize with friends who live outside 
neighborhood: less than once a month
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.09 p < .05
Socialize with friends who live outside 
neighborhood: once a month or more frequently
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.14 p < .05
Sociazlize with people one works with: less than 
once a month or missing
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.07 p < .05
Socialize with people one works with: once a month 
or more frequently


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bSelfreport on single question:

Next are some questions about how you see yourself and your life. Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days?
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl