Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Income level in vinicity

StudyLuttmer (2005): study US 1987
TitleNeighbors as Negatives: Relative Earnings and Well-Being.
SourceQuarterly Journal of Economics, 2005, 963-1002
URLhttp://www.nber.org/~luttmer/relative.pdf
Public19+ aged couples, United States, followed 6 years, 1987-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8944

Correlate
Author's labelLn puma earnings
Page in Source Table 1+7+8
Our classificationIncome level in vinicity
Operationalization
Log everage income in region/neighbourhood as predicted 
on the basis of period industry and occupation of 
residence
Observed distributionM:9.824 USD; SD:0.27 USD
Remarks
Region/neighbourhood about 100000 individuals

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.21 p < .05
Couples 

Similar results obtaioned in several fixed effects 
analyssis and in several robustness checks.

Beta controlled for:
- Household income
- Value of home
- Renter
- Usual working hours
- Employment status
- Gender
- Age
- Race
- Years of education
- Household size
- Religion
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.21 p < .05
Males only
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.28 p < .05
Females only
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.09 ns
Age <30
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.23 p < .05
Age 30-40
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.25 p < .05
Age 40-60
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.23 ns
Age >60
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.54 ns
Education level: No education
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.16 ns
Marital status: widowed
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.20 ns
Education level: High school dropout
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.25 p < .05
Education level: High school degree
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.10 ns
Education level: some college
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.20 p < .05
Education level: college degree or more
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.20 p < .05
Marital status: married/cohabiting
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.39 p < .05
Marital status: divorced/seperated
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.12 ns
Marital status: never married
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.02 ns
Marital status: changed during last year
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.19 p < .10
Home ownership: rents
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.24 p < .05
Home ownership: owns
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.21 p < .05
Presence of children <18: None
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.21 p < .05
Presence of children <18: >1 child
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.21 p < .05
Lives in current home: <7 years
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.16 p < .05
Lives in current home: 7 year of more
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.41 p < .05
Lives in current home: duration unknown
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.12 p < .10
Socialize with neighbor: Less than once a 
month/missing
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.31 p < .05
Socialize with neighbor: Once a month or more
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.14 p < .10
Socialize with relatives: Less than once a month 
or missing
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.24 p < .05
Socialize with relatives: Once a month or more 
frequently
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.23 p < .05
Socialize with friends who live outside the 
neighborhood: Less than once a month or missing
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.19 p < .05
Socialize with friends who live outside the 
neighborhood: Once a month or more frequently
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.19 p < .05
Socialize with people one works with: less than 
once a month or missing
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.25 p < .05
Socialize with people one works with: once a month 
or more


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bSelfreport on single question:

Next are some questions about how you see yourself and your life. Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days?
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl