Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Earlier educational level

StudyPfeifer (2013): study DE 2003
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Consumption Values of Partners and Friends: Empirical Evidence from German Panel Survey Data.
SourceEconomics Bulletin, 2013, Vol. 33, 3131 - 3142
URLhttp://econpapers.repec.org/article/eblecbull/eb-13-00787.htm
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 5 years, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9972

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationEarlier educational level
Operationalization
a) secondary schooling degree:
     1) low (reference group)
     2) middle
     3) high

b) apprenticeship degree:
    1 yes
    0 no

c) university degree:
    1 yes
    0 no
Observed distributionMean (S.D.) a) 2) middle secondary schooling: 0.3648, (0.0332) )3) high secondary schooling: 0.3070 (0.0328) b) apprenticeship degree: 0.7250 (0.0817) c) university degree: 0.2424 (0.0777)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+1.1 p < .10
Secondary schooling, middle (vs low)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+1.0 ns
Secondary schooling, high (vs low)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.15 ns
Apprenticeship degree (vs no degree)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.11
University degree (vs no degree)

b's controlled for:
- marital status
- number of close friends
- number of persons in household
- german citizenship
- age
- subjective health-status
- employment status
- year dummy 2008
- regions


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
b-fixREGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis
Type: test statistic
WDH symbol: b-fix
Primary correlate level: metric
Secondary correlate level: nonmetric
Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited
Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl