Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: GDP in region

StudyPfaff & Hirata (2013): study DE East Germany 1992
TitleTesting the Easterlin Hypothesis with Panel Data: The Dynamic Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Economic Growth in Germany and in the UK.
SourceZWb Econstor Conference Paper, Münster, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.421619.de/diw_sp0554.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, (East-)Germany, followed 18 years,1992-2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81956

Correlate
Author's labelRegional income
Page in Source 31
Our classificationGDP in region
Operationalization
Regional GDP/capita in price level of 1995 (euro)
Observed distributionMean: 16391; SD:3217
Remarks
Significance level based upon asterisks (p-values 
report different significance)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.01 ns
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT regional GDP/capita
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.13 p < .104
CURRENT happiness by PAST regional GDP/capita
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.26 p < .01
CURRENT happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GDP/capita (T-2 to T-1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.70 p < .10
CURRENT Happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GDP/capita (t-2 to t-1)

b's controlled for:
- Age squared
- Marital status
- Number of children in the household
- Health satisfaction
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Person requiring health in the household
- Self-administerd-interview
- Household income growth


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
b-fixREGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis
Type: test statistic
WDH symbol: b-fix
Primary correlate level: metric
Secondary correlate level: nonmetric
Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited
Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl