Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-development (self-actualizing values)
Subject code: V02aa01b

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelAcademic achievementvalue
Our classificationSelf-development (self-actualizing values), code V02aa01b
Operationalization
Index at T1, T2 and T3 of four items that indicate the 
extent to which the respondent considers it to be "a 
good thing" to demonstrate behavior indicative of 
academic achievement. Items: "studying constantly in 
order to become a well-educated person; working hard to 
achieve academic honors; striving to get the top 
grade-point average in the group; studying hard to get 
good grades in school." 
Scale: 1 = low to 6 = high in academic achievement 
value

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ s
              Academic achievement value
Happiness     T1          T2          T3
T1     tau = +.26 (001)  +.15 (001)  +.15 (001)
T2     tau = +.16 (001)  +.22 (001)  +.14 (001)
T3     tau = +.12 (01)   +.18 (001)  +.25 (001)
T4     tau = +.10 (01)   +.13 (001)  +.18 (001)
All tau's significant
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl