Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier school-behavior
Subject code: S01aa01a

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Author's labelDelinquent behavior in school
Our classificationEarlier school-behavior, code S01aa01a
At T1, T2 and T3: a mean of seven items measuring the 
amount of school-oriented delinquent behaviour. 
Included are questions on how often respondent has been 
suspended, damaged school property, and gotten into a 
serious fight at school. Scale: 0.00 = never to 4.00 = 
five or more times

Observed Relation with Happiness
              Delinquent behavior in school
Happiness     T1          T2          T3
T1     tau = -.19 (001)  -.14 (001)  -.12 (001)
T2     tau = -.10 (01)   -.15 (001)  -.11 (01)
T3     tau = -.07 (ns)   -.10 (01)   -.08 (05)
T4     tau = -.06 (ns)   -.04 (ns)   -.04 (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5

Appendix 2: Statistics used
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

tau = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.