Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P05bp

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelInternal control
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P05bp
Operationalization
A mean of items adapted from the Rotter internality 
scale (see Rotter, 1966)
Scale: 1.00 = low to 2.00 = high internal control. 
Assessed at T1, T2, T3 and T4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ s
             Internal control
Happiness    T1        T2        T3        T4
T1     tau = +.21      +.14      +.14      +.13
T2     tau = +.12 (01) +.21      +.19      +.19
T3     tau = +.10 (01) +.14      +.23      +.20
T4     tau = +.13      +.15      +.21      +.28
All tau's significant with (001), unless indicated 
otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl