Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier need for self-actualization
Subject code: P02ab23

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Author's labelNeed for self- utilization
Our classificationEarlier need for self-actualization, code P02ab23
8-item index containing closed questions concerning use 
of one's existing skills and abilities. Scale:
1.00 = low; 5.00 = high need for 
self-utilization. Assessed at T1, T2, T3 and T4

Observed Relation with Happiness
            Need for self-utilization
Happiness   T1        T2        T3      T4
T1        +.27      +.15      +.17    +.12 (01)
T2        +.14      +.26      +.20    +.15
T3        +.09 (05) +.12 (01) +.26    +.16
T4        +.07 (ns) +.11 (01) +.19    +.25
All tau's significant with (001) unless indicated 
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5

Appendix 2: Statistics used
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

tau = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.