Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Earlier mental health

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Author's labelNegative affective states
Our classificationEarlier mental health
40-item index of closed questions on irritability (7 
items), general anxiety (7 items), anxiety and tension 
(5 items), depression (6 items), anomie (8 items) and 
resentment (7 items). Scale: 1.00 = low to 5.00 = high 
negativity. Assessed at T1, T2, T3 and T4

Observed Relation with Happiness
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=- p < .001
                  Negative affective states
Happiness       T1       T2       T3       T4
T1       tau = -.54     -.35     -.33     -.31
T2       tau = -.37     -.56     -.43     -.39
T3       tau = -.31     -.45     -.61     -.45
T4       tau = -.35     -.42     -.46     -.52
All tau's significant (001)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5

Appendix 2: Statistics used
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

tau = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.