Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier attitudes to school
Subject code: S01aa01d

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelSchool attitudes
Our classificationEarlier attitudes to school, code S01aa01d
Operationalization
Positive and negative school attitudes were measured at 
T1, T2 and T3. Positive school attitude: a mean of 
15 items which stress the intrinsic value of education; 
scale: 1.00 = low (education has little value) to 4.00 
= high (education has high value)
Negative school attitude: a mean of 8 
items indicating the respondent's negative or avoidance 
attitudes toward school. Scale: 1.00 = low negativity;
4.00 = high negativity

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= p < .001
              Positive school attitudes
Happiness     T1        T2        T2
T1      tau = +.41      +.27      +.25
T2      tau = +.33      +.39      +.32
T3      tau = +.23      +.27      +.37
T4      tau = +.20      +.23      +.27
All tau's significant (001)

              Negative school attitudes
Happiness     T1        T2        T3
T1        _ = -.25      -.21      -.22
T2        _ = -.21      -.26      -.23
T3        _ = -.17      -.18      -.27
T4        _ = -.18      -.16      -.19
All _ significant (001)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl