Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier school-behavior
Subject code: S01aa01a

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Author's labelSerious delinquent behaviors
Our classificationEarlier school-behavior, code S01aa01a
A mean of 10 items asking the respondent how often he 
had done such things as 'set fire to someone else's 
property on purpose', 'hurt someone badly enough to 
need bandages or a doctor', 'taken something not 
belonging to you worth over $50' etc. Scale: 1.00 = 
never to 5.00 = five or more times.
Assessed at T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
          Serious delinquent behavior
         T1      T2      T3      T4      T5
T1     -.18    -.14    -.12    -.04 ns -.10
T2     -.09    -.11    -.09    -.03 ns -.07 ns T3  
   -.04 ns -.07 ns -.11    -.05 ns -.04 ns
T4     -.03 ns -.02 ns -.05 ns -.04 ns -.03 ns
All tau's significant, unless otherwise indicated
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5

Appendix 2: Statistics used
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

tau = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.