Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Entrepreneur

StudyFalco et al. (2012): study GH 2004
TitleHeterogeneity in Subjective Wellbeing. An Application to Occupational Allocation in Africa.
SourcePolicy Research Working Paper 6244, Worldbank, 2012, USA
Public15-60 aged, urban population, Ghana, followed 7 years, 2004-2010
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3216

Correlate
Author's labelDifferent employment status
Page in Source 38
Our classificationEntrepreneur
Operationalization
a  Self-employed, with employee    
b  Self-employed, no employee      
c  Wage-employed, informal         
d  Wage-employed, formal           
e  Wage-employed, civil sevice
Observed distributiona; 13%, b: 47%, c: 16%, d: 16%, e: 8%
Remarks
a. Self-employed, with employees: more entrepreneurial 
(able to hire emploees)

b.Self-employed,no employees: a disguised unemployment 
subsistence mode until their next job

c. Wage-employed, informal: employees in firms of up to 
5 workers

d,Wage-employed, formal: employees in firms of up to 5 
workers

e.Wage-employed,civil sevice: civil or public sector 
workers

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLS-c-sq-v-6-aDM=+/-
     M       SD
a   3.57    0.85
b   3.23    0.89
c   3.13    0.90
d   3.30    0.90
e   3.53    0.92
O-SLS-c-sq-v-6-aDM=-
all self-employed (a+b)     M = 3.30
all wage-employed (c+d+c)   M = 3.29
-difference                    +0.01
O-SLS-c-sq-v-6-aDM=+
all self-employed(a+b)      M = 3.30
wage-employed,informal      M = 3.13
-difference                    +0.17
O-SLS-c-sq-v-6-aDM=0
all self-employed(a+b)      M = 3.30
wage-employed,formal        M = 3.30
-difference                     0
O-SLS-c-sq-v-6-aDM=-
all self-employed(a+b)      M = 3.30
wage-employed,civil sevice  M = 3.53
-difference                    -0.23


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLS-c-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question

Taking everything together, how happy are you with the way things are going in your life now?
6 completely satisfied
5 pretty much satisfied
4 slightly satisfied
3 slightly dissatisfied
2 pretty much dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl