Study | VandeVliert & Janssen (2002a): study ZZ 1986 /1 |

Title | Competive Societies are Happy if the Women are Less Compitive than the Men. |

Source | Cross-Cultural Research, 2002, Vol. 36, 321 - 337 |

DOI | DOI:10.1177/106939702237305 |

Public | General public and students, 42 nations, 1986-1989 |

Sample | Non-probability chunk sample |

Non-Response | |

Respondents N = | 42 |

Correlate | |

Author's label | Overall competitiveness |

Page in Source | 326, 331 |

Our classification | Intrinsic motivation |

Operationalization | Attitude of university students: Average of the summed mean female responses and male responses to the following 5 items: -I try harder when I am in competition with other people -It is important to me to perform better than others to a task -I enjoy working in situations involving competition with others -I feel that winning is important in both work and games -It annoys me when other people perform better than I do Assessed on a 5 point scale: 0=strongly disagree to 4= strongly agree |

Observed distribution | All: M= 12,10, SD=1,73 Women: M = 11,76 SD= 1.85, Men M=12,44 SD= 1,6. |

Error Estimates | r=+.90 between female and male responses, r=+.73 p<.01 (between responses in 21 more and 21 less developed countries) |

Remarks | Data: International student survey (Lynn 1991) |

Observed Relation with Happiness | ||

Happiness Measure | Statistics | Elaboration/Remarks |

O-Sum---sq-nt-11-a | r=-.55 p < .001 | Nations as unit of analysis: Average happiness by average compititiveness |

O-Sum---sq-nt-11-a | b=-.31 p < .10 | B controlled for societal development as measured with the Human Development Index (8% additional variance in happiness explained) |

O-Sum---sq-nt-11-a | b=+.28 p < .10 | B controled for gender gap in competition (5% additional variance in happiness explained after societal development and and overall competitiveness) |

O-Sum---sq-nt-11-a | b=+.26 p < .10 | Interaction effect with gender gap. No less happiness in nations were men are competitive, but women less so (large gender gap) Much less happiness in nations were both men and women are competitive (small gender gap) (6% additional variance in happiness explained) PICTURE INVOEGEN |

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

Code | Full Text |

O-Sum---sq-nt-11-a | Self report on single question: Equivalent questions on happiness and life-satisfaction rated on various scales. The items differ slightly in wording and number of the response options. Scores are transformed to a common range 0 - 10 by means of expert weighting of response options (Thurstone's method). |

Appendix 2: Statistics used

Symbol | Explanation |

b | REGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS) Type: test statistic Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric Theoretical range: unlimited Meaning: b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average. B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average. B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate. |

r | PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient') Type: test statistic. Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric Range: [-1; +1] Meaning: r = 0 « no correlation , r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values. |

Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.

https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl