Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Intrinsic motivation

StudyVandeVliert & Janssen (2002a): study ZZ 1986 /1
TitleCompetive Societies are Happy if the Women are Less Compitive than the Men.
SourceCross-Cultural Research, 2002, Vol. 36, 321 - 337
DOIDOI:10.1177/106939702237305
PublicGeneral public and students, 42 nations, 1986-1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =42

Correlate
Author's labelOverall competitiveness
Page in Source 326, 331
Our classificationIntrinsic motivation
Operationalization
Attitude of university students:
Average of the summed mean female responses and male 
responses to the following 5 items:
-I try harder when I am in competition with other 
people
-It is important to me to perform better than others to 
a task
-I enjoy working in situations involving competition 
with others
-I feel that winning is important in both work and 
games
-It annoys me when other people perform better than I 
do
Assessed on a 5 point scale: 0=strongly disagree to 4= 
strongly agree
Observed distributionAll: M= 12,10, SD=1,73 Women: M = 11,76 SD= 1.85, Men M=12,44 SD= 1,6.
Error Estimatesr=+.90 between female and male responses, r=+.73 p<.01 (between responses in 21 more and 21 less developed countries)
Remarks
Data: International student survey (Lynn 1991)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=-.55 p < .001
Nations as unit of analysis: Average happiness by 
average compititiveness
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ab=-.31 p < .10
B controlled for societal development as measured 
with the Human Development Index
(8% additional variance in happiness explained)
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ab=+.28 p < .10
B controled for gender gap in competition
(5% additional variance in happiness explained 
after societal development and and overall 
competitiveness)
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ab=+.26 p < .10
Interaction effect with gender gap.
No less happiness in nations were men are 
competitive, but women less so (large gender gap)
Much less happiness in nations were both men and 
women are competitive (small gender gap)
(6% additional variance in happiness explained)

PICTURE INVOEGEN
Set Image size:   



Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-aSelf report on single question:

Equivalent questions on happiness and life-satisfaction rated on various scales. The items differ slightly in wording and number of the response options.

Scores are transformed to a common range 0 - 10 by means of expert weighting of response options (Thurstone's method).


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl