Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Time spend to farming

StudyMolnar (1985): study US 1981
TitleDeterminants of Subjective Well-Being among Farm Operators.
SourceRural Sociology, 1985, Vol. 50, 141 - 162
PublicFarm operators, Alabama, USA, 1981
Sample
Non-Response29,9%
Respondents N =705

Correlate
Author's labelCombined off-farm employment status
Page in Source 154,156
Our classificationTime spend to farming
Operationalization
Closed questions on: 
a:  'Husband's off-farm workdays' (rated on a 6-point 
scale ranging from   'none' to '200 or more') 
b  'Wife's work on the farm' (rated on a   3-point 
scale: 1. did not work off   the farm / 2. worked 
part-time / 3. worked full ime).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aDM=+/-
- husband employed off-farm   Mt' = 6.8
- wife employed off-farm      Mt' = 6.1
- both employed off-farm      Mt' = 6.6
- neither employed off-farm   Mt' = 6.5
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aR=.10
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aBeta=+.18 p < .01
 controlled for: 
- gross farm sales
- percent farm income
- total family income
- off-farm work days
- land operated
- growth plans
- commitment to farming
- economic constraints
- self-definition
- age
- education

When specified for size of farm:
-small   =+.23
-medium  =+.19
-large   =+.03


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aSelfreport on single question:

"Here is a picture of a ladder. At the bottom of the ladder is the worst life you might reasonably expect to have. At the top is the best life you might expect to have. Of course, life from week to week falls somewhere in between. Where was your life most of the time during the past year?"
[ 9 ] best life you might expect to have
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst life you might expect to have


Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating (modified version)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
RCOEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R = 0 no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R = 1 the correlates determine the happiness completely.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl