Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Materialisic values

StudyKasser & Ahuvia (2002): study SG 2000
TitleMaterialistic Values and Well-being in Business Students.
SourceEuropean Journal of Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 32, 137 - 146
DOIDoi: 10.1002/ejsp.85
PublicBusiness students, Singapore, 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Respondents N =92

Author's labelMaterialism
Page in Source 142
Our classificationMaterialisic values
Selfreport on 18 questions about material values:
a.	I admire people who own expensive homes, cars, and 
b.	Some of the most important achievements in life 
include acquiring material possessions. 
c.	I donít place much emphasis on the amount of 
material objects people own as a sign of success. 
d.	The things I own say a lot about how well Iím doing 
in life. 
e.	I like to own things that impress people. 
f.	I donít pay much attention to the material objects 
other people own. 
g.	I usually buy only the things I need. 
h.	I try to keep my life simple, as far as possessions 
are concerned. 
i.	The things I own arenít all that important to me. 
j.	I enjoy spending money on things that arenít 
k.	Buying things gives me a lot of pleasure. 
l.	I like a lot of luxury in my life. 
m.	I put less emphasis on material things than most 
people I know. 
n.	I have all the things I really need to enjoy life. 
o.	My life would be better if I owned certain things I 
donít have. 
p.	I wouldnít be any happier if I owned nicer things. 
q.	Iíd be happier if I could afford to buy more things. 

r.	It sometimes bothers me quite a bit that I canít 
afford to buy all the things Iíd like.

Rated by 5 Likert scale:
1-extremely important
5-no importance at all
Materialism Scale (Richins&Dawson,1992)

Observed Relation with Happiness
A-AOL-u-sq-n-101-ar=-.16 ns
A-TH-cw-mq-th%-101-ar=-.05 ns
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-abr=+.17 ns

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-AOL-u-sq-n-101-aSelfreport on single question:

How high or low is your level of wellbeing?
0 extremely low, utterly depressed, completely down
100 extremely high, feeling extatic joyous, fantastic

Adapted Fordyce Happiness Scale
A-TH-cw-mq-th%-101-aSelfreport on three questions:

In the last week, what percentage of the time do you feelÖ.Ö' (percentages must add up to 100%)
1 happy
2 unhappy
3 neutral

Name: Fordyce % happy scale
Variant: % happy in last week
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-abSelfreport on three questions:

'On the average, what percentage of the time d you feelÖ.Ö' (percentages must add up to 100%)
1 happy
2 unhappy
3 neutral

Name: Fordyce % happy scale
Variant: % unhappy

Appendix 2: Statistics used
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

r = 0 ę no correlation ,
r = 1 ę perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 ę perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.