Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Materialisic values

StudyKasser & Ahuvia (2002): study SG 2000
TitleMaterialistic Values and Well-being in Business Students.
SourceEuropean Journal of Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 32, 137 - 146
DOIDoi: 10.1002/ejsp.85
PublicBusiness students, Singapore, 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Respondents N =92

Author's labelMaterialism
Page in Source 142
Our classificationMaterialisic values
Selfreport on 21 questions about materialistic 
attitudes and beliefs:
a.	I enjoy donating things for charity. 
b.	I enjoy sharing what I have. 
c.	I do not enjoy donating things to the needy. 
d.	I don't like to lend things, even to good friends. 
e.	When friends do better than me in competition it 
usually makes me feel happy for them. 
f.	I enjoy having people I like stay in my home. 
g.	When friends have things I cannot afford it bothers 
h.	I worry about people taking my possessions. 
i.	I don't mind giving rides to those who don't have a 
j.	I get very upset if something is stolen from me, 
even if it has little monetary value. 
k.	I don't like to have anyone in my home when l'm not 
l.	I don't get particularly upset when I lose things. 
m.	I am less likely than most people to lock things up. 

n.	I don't seem to get what is coming to me. 
o.	People who are very wealthy often feel they are too 
good to talk to average people. 
p.	If I have to choose between buying something for 
myself versus for someone I love, I would prefer buying 
for myself 
q.	I am bothered when I see people who buy anything 
they want. 
r.	There are certain people I would like to trade 
places with. 
s.	I like to collect things
t.	I have a lot of souvenirs, 
u.	I tend to hang on to things I should probably throw 

Rated by 5 Likert scale:
1-extremely important
5-no importance at all
Materialism Scale (Ger &Belk,1996)

Observed Relation with Happiness
A-AOL-u-sq-n-101-ar=-.26 p < .05
A-TH-cw-mq-th%-101-ar=-.22 p < .05
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-abr=+18 p < .10

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-AOL-u-sq-n-101-aSelfreport on single question:

How high or low is your level of wellbeing?
0 extremely low, utterly depressed, completely down
100 extremely high, feeling extatic joyous, fantastic

Adapted Fordyce Happiness Scale
A-TH-cw-mq-th%-101-aSelfreport on three questions:

In the last week, what percentage of the time do you feel….…' (percentages must add up to 100%)
1 happy
2 unhappy
3 neutral

Name: Fordyce % happy scale
Variant: % happy in last week
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-abSelfreport on three questions:

'On the average, what percentage of the time d you feel….…' (percentages must add up to 100%)
1 happy
2 unhappy
3 neutral

Name: Fordyce % happy scale
Variant: % unhappy

Appendix 2: Statistics used
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.