Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Materialisic values

StudyKasser & Ahuvia (2002): study SG 2000
TitleMaterialistic Values and Well-being in Business Students.
SourceEuropean Journal of Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 32, 137 - 146
DOIDoi: 10.1002/ejsp.85
PublicBusiness students, Singapore, 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Respondents N =92

Author's labelAspiration
Page in Source 142
Our classificationMaterialisic values
Selfreport on 57 questions on extrinsic values:
a.  There will always be someone around to take care of 
b.  I will be efficient.  
c.  My image will be one other's find appealing.
d.  I will find personal answers to universal spiritual 
questions (such as:  Is there a supreme spiritual 
being?  Is there life after death?  What is the meaning 
of life?)
e.  I will be in control of my emotions.  
f.  I will assist people who need it, asking nothing in 
g.  I will choose what I do, instead of being pushed 
along by life.
h.  People will show affection to me, and I will to 
i.  I will feel energetic and full of life.
j. I will have few threats to my personal safety.   
k. My life will be full of wine, lovers and song.
l. I will have many expensive possessions.
m. I will achieve the "look" I've been after.
n. I will be admired by many people.
o. I will be polite and obedient
p. I will have a great sex life.
q. I will have developed a code of ethics and/or morals 
to guide my life.  
r. My basic needs for food, shelter and clothing will 
be met.  
s. I will feel that there are people who really love 
t. I will feel free.
u. The things I do will make other people's lives 
v. My name will be known by many different people.
w. I will be in good physical shape.
x. Someone in my life will accept me as I am, no matter 
y. I will follow my interests and curiosity where they 
take me. 
z. I will find satisfying religious and/or spiritual 
aa. I will live up to the expectations of my society.
ab. I will deal effectively with problems in my life.
ac. I will feel safe and secure.
ad. People will often comment about how attractive I 
ae. I will feel good about my level of physical 
af. I will be financially successful.
ag. I will have a lot of excitement in my life.
ah. I will not have to worry about bad things happening 
to me.  
ai. I will produce something of lasting worth.  
aj. I will find religious or spiritual beliefs that 
help me make sense of the world. 
ak. Most everyone who knows me will like me.  
al. I will feel good about my abilities.
am. I will successfully hide the signs of aging.
an. I will be relatively free from sickness.
ao. My desires and tastes will be similar to those of 
other people.  
ap. I will have enough money to buy everything I want.
aq. I will express my love for special people.  
ar. I will find religious and/or spiritual beliefs that 
are growth-producing.  
as. I will overcome the challenges that life presents 
at. I will have insight into why I do the things I do.  

au. I will help the world become a better place.
av. I will experience a great deal of sensual pleasure.
aw.  My life and actions will be in agreement with my 
religious/spiritual beliefs.  
ax. I will have a committed, intimate relationship.
ay. I will have a job that pays well.
52. I will "fit in" with others.  
53. I will be physically healthy.
54. I will have plenty of time to be lazy.  
55. I will keep up with fashions in clothing and hair.  

56. My surroundings will be stable and relatively 
57. People will really respect me.  

Rated by 5 Likert scale:
1-extremely important
5-no importance at all
Aspiration Index( Kasser& Ryan, 2001)

Observed Relation with Happiness
A-AOL-u-sq-n-101-ar=-.13 ns
A-TH-cw-mq-th%-101-ar=-.08 ns
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-abr=+16 ns

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-AOL-u-sq-n-101-aSelfreport on single question:

How high or low is your level of wellbeing?
0 extremely low, utterly depressed, completely down
100 extremely high, feeling extatic joyous, fantastic

Adapted Fordyce Happiness Scale
A-TH-cw-mq-th%-101-aSelfreport on three questions:

In the last week, what percentage of the time do you feel….…' (percentages must add up to 100%)
1 happy
2 unhappy
3 neutral

Name: Fordyce % happy scale
Variant: % happy in last week
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-abSelfreport on three questions:

'On the average, what percentage of the time d you feel….…' (percentages must add up to 100%)
1 happy
2 unhappy
3 neutral

Name: Fordyce % happy scale
Variant: % unhappy

Appendix 2: Statistics used
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.