Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Level of school-education

StudyGschwandtner et al. (2015): study GB 2012
TitleOn the Relationship between Lifestyle and Happiness in the UK.
SourcePaper for 89th Annual Conference of AES, 2015, 1 - 33, Warwick, England
URLhttp://econpapers.repec.org/paper/agsaesc15/204199.htm
Public16+ aged, general public UK, 2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =31946

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 12, 14
Our classificationLevel of school-education
Operationalization
0: none (reference)
1. Degree and above
2. Other higher qualifications
3. A level
4. GCSE
5. Other qualifications
Observed distribution0: males 12%, females 16% 1: males 25%, females 22% 2: males 11%, females 14% 3: males 23%, females 17% 4: males 18%, females 21% 5: males 11%, females 10%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+/- ns
Degree and above            (vs none)
- males    +.01 (ns)
- females  +.03 (ns)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+/- ns
Other higher qualifications  (vs none)
- males    -.01(ns)
- females  -.05 (ns)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+/- ns
A level                      (vs none)
- males    -.05 (ns)
- females  -.06 (ns)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+/- ns
GSCE                         (vs none)
- males    -.03 (ns)
- females  -.06 (ns)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+/- ns
Other qualifications         (vs none)
- males    -.05 (ns)
- females  -.06 (ns)

b's controled for:
- age
- socio-economic backgroud (parents education)
- marital status 
- age of youngest child
- ethnicity
- employment status
- region
- health behavior
  - daily consumption of fruits and vegetables
  - days walk
  - sporting


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport on single question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
b-fixREGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis
Type: test statistic
WDH symbol: b-fix
Primary correlate level: metric
Secondary correlate level: nonmetric
Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited
Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl