Study | Gschwandtner et al. (2015): study GB 2012 |

Title | On the Relationship between Lifestyle and Happiness in the UK. |

Source | Paper for 89th Annual Conference of AES, 2015, 1 - 33, Warwick, England |

URL | http://econpapers.repec.org/paper/agsaesc15/204199.htm |

Public | 16+ aged, general public UK, 2012 |

Sample | Probability multistage stratified area sample |

Non-Response | |

Respondents N = | 31946 |

Correlate | |

Author's label | Average daily portions of fruits and vegetables |

Page in Source | table 1 + 2 |

Our classification | What one eats |

Operationalization | Average daily portions of fruit and vegetables 1: none (reference) 2: 1-2 3: 2-3 4: 3-4 5: 4-5 |

Observed distribution | Males: M = 3,86; SD = 3,06. Females: M = 3,02; SD = 2,74 |

Observed Relation with Happiness | ||

Happiness Measure | Statistics | Elaboration/Remarks |

O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-e | b=+ s | 1-2 portions per day (vs none) - males: +.09 (05) - females + 15 (01) |

O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-e | b=+ s | 2-3 portions per day (vs none) - males: +.16 (01) - females + 14 (01) |

O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-e | b=+ s | 3-4 portions per day (vs none) - males: +.19 (01) - females + 27 (01) |

O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-e | b=+ s | 4-5 portions per day (vs none) - males: +.20 (01) - females + 30 (01) b's controled for: - socio-economic backgroud (parents education) - age - education - marital status - age of youngest child - ethnicity - employment status - region - health behavior - days walk - sporting |

O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-e | b-iv=+ | Stronger effects in instrumental variable analysis in which the net effect of sporting on happiness is controled. This suggest a causal effect of fruit/vegagetable consumption on happiness |

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

Code | Full Text |

O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-e | Selfreport on single question: How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with your life as a whole? 1 not satisfied at all 2 3 4 5 6 7 completely satisfied |

Appendix 2: Statistics used

Symbol | Explanation |

b | REGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS) Type: test statistic Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric Theoretical range: unlimited Meaning: b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average. B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average. B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate. |

b-iv | REGRESSION COEFFICIENT in regression ananlysis with instrumental variable as one or more explanatory variables Type: test statistic. Correlate level: metric, Happiness level: metric Theoretical range: unlimited The instrument must be correlated with the endogenous explanatory variables, conditionally on the other covariates. If this correlation is strong, then the instrument is said to have a strong first stage. A weak correlation may provide misleading inferences about parameter estimates and standard errors. The instrument cannot be correlated with the error term in the explanatory equation, conditionally on the other covariates. In other words, the instrument cannot suffer from the same problem as the original predicting variable. If this condition is met, then the instrument is said to satisfy the exclusion restriction. See Mardia Kent & Bibby (1979): Multivariate Analysis |

Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.

https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl