Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Healthy eating

StudyGschwandtner et al. (2015): study GB 2012
TitleOn the Relationship between Lifestyle and Happiness in the UK.
SourcePaper for 89th Annual Conference of AES, 2015, 1 - 33, Warwick, England
URLhttp://econpapers.repec.org/paper/agsaesc15/204199.htm
Public16+ aged, general public UK, 2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =31946

Correlate
Author's labelAverage daily portions of fruits and vegetables
Page in Source table 1 + 2
Our classificationHealthy eating
Operationalization
Average daily portions of fruit and vegetables
1: none (reference)
2: 1-2
3: 2-3
4: 3-4
5: 4-5
Observed distributionMales: M = 3,86; SD = 3,06. Females: M = 3,02; SD = 2,74

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+ s
1-2 portions per day (vs none)
- males:  +.09 (05)
- females + 15 (01)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+ s
2-3 portions per day (vs none)
- males:  +.16 (01)
- females + 14 (01)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+ s
3-4 portions per day (vs none)
- males:  +.19 (01)
- females + 27 (01)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+ s
4-5 portions per day (vs none)
- males:  +.20 (01)
- females + 30 (01)

b's controled for:
- socio-economic backgroud (parents education)
- age 
- education
- marital status
- age of youngest child
- ethnicity
- employment status
- region
- health behavior
  - days walk
  - sporting
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-iv=+
Stronger effects in instrumental variable analysis 
in which the net effect of sporting on happiness 
is controled. This suggest a causal effect of 
fruit/vegagetable consumption on happiness


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport on single question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
b-ivREGRESSION COEFFICIENT in regression ananlysis with instrumental variable as one or more explanatory variables
Type: test statistic.
Correlate level: metric, Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

The instrument must be correlated with the endogenous explanatory variables, conditionally on the other covariates. If this correlation is strong, then the instrument is said to have a strong first stage. A weak correlation may provide misleading inferences about parameter estimates and standard errors.
The instrument cannot be correlated with the error term in the explanatory equation, conditionally on the other covariates. In other words, the instrument cannot suffer from the same problem as the original predicting variable. If this condition is met, then the instrument is said to satisfy the exclusion restriction.


See Mardia Kent & Bibby (1979): Multivariate Analysis
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl