Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Use of tobacco

StudyKye & Park (2014): study KR 2009
TitleHealth-related determinants of Happiness in Korean Adults.
SourceInternational Journal of Public Health, 2014, Vol. 59, 731-738
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00038-014-0588-0
Public30-69 aged, general population, South Korea 2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Respondents N =1530

Author's labelCurrent smoking
Page in Source 735
Our classificationUse of tobacco
Partcipants who were smoking during the face to face 
interviews were classified as smokers.
1 smoked
0 did not smoke
Observed distribution1: 24.4%, 0: 75.6%

Observed Relation with Happiness
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-mD%=+ p < .005
Current smoking   
             % happy %unhappy  %difference
- yes            53.4    46.6      +6.8
- no             61.5    38.5      +23
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-mOR=0.79 p < .01
OR CI95[0,60-1,05] controled for:
- socio-demographic factors
  - age
  - marital status
  - income
  - education
- health behaviour
  - healthy eating
  - regular exercise
- stress
- exercise environment
  - parks
  - fitness clubs
  - mountain trails

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-mSelfreport on single question

In general, how would you describe your happiness?
4 very happy
3 mostly happy
2 a little bit happy
1 not happy at all

Appendix 2: Statistics used
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
OROR: Odds ratio in binary logistic regression.

Happiness is a binary or dichotomous variable with Happy =1 and Unhappy=0.

OR < 1 indicates that the odds of being happy-to-being unhappy
decreases by a factor OR when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases by one unit
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

OR > 1 indicates an increase by a factor OR for both the above cases.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.