Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Sum of negative life-events

StudyMartinson et al. (1985): study US Wisconsin 1974
TitleLife Change, Health Status and Life Satisfaction: A Reconsideration.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1985, Vol. 16, 301 - 313
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00415128
Public18+ aged, general public, NW Wisconsin, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response14%
Respondents N =1423

Correlate
Author's labelNegative life change
Page in Source 309
Our classificationSum of negative life-events
Operationalization
Direct question: "Is there anything that has happened 
to you or your family recently that has unfavorably 
affected your well-being or happiness?"
0: no  
1: yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-
r of different age groups:
under 30 : -.23          30-49   : -.24
50-64    : -.19          over 64 : -.18

Signs changed by us.
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-
 of different age groups:
under 30 : -.15  05     30-49   : -.20  05
50-64    : -.14  05     over 64 : -.06  ns

 controlled for: degree of disability, days lost 
due to illness, powerlessness, community 
solidarity, recent migrant, contact with friends, 
contact with relatives, organizational 
affiliation, church attendance, separated / 
divorced, sex, unemployed, family income, 
education. 


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

Considering everything, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole........?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied

Summation: both scores added
Possible range: 2 to 14


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl