Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Active involvement in sports

StudyKye & Park (2014): study KR 2009
TitleHealth-related determinants of Happiness in Korean Adults.
SourceInternational Journal of Public Health, 2014, Vol. 59, 731-738
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00038-014-0588-0
Public30-69 aged, general population, South Korea 2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1530

Correlate
Author's labelExercise
Page in Source 735
Our classificationActive involvement in sports
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions on physical activity 
(exercise). Participants who exercised more than 5 
times a week for a 30minutes a day were considered 
regular exercisers.
Observed distribution1: 44.2%, 0: 55.8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-mD%=+ p < .001
Regular exercise % happy %unhappy  %difference
- yes            64.8     35.2       + 29.6
- no             55.3     44.7       + 18.3
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-mOR=1.40 p < .05
OR CI95[1,09-1,79] controled for:
- socio-demographic factors
  - age
  - marital status
  - income
  - education
- stress
- healthy behavior
  - smoking
  - healthy eating
- exercise environment
  - parks
  - fitness clubs
  - mountain trails


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-mSelfreport on single question

In general, how would you describe your happiness?
4 very happy
3 mostly happy
2 a little bit happy
1 not happy at all


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
OROR: Odds ratio in binary logistic regression.

Happiness is a binary or dichotomous variable with Happy =1 and Unhappy=0.

OR < 1 indicates that the odds of being happy-to-being unhappy
decreases by a factor OR when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases by one unit
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

OR > 1 indicates an increase by a factor OR for both the above cases.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl